This doorbell Security system works such that when someone presses your calling bell switch during the night, not only the bell rings but the bulb connected to it also glows. In order to turn the bulb off, just press the reset pushbutton switch provided in the circuit. Place the bulb near the calling bell switch so that you can see the person pressing the calling bell before opening the door. So you can choose not to open the door to doubtful persons. During day time, the bulb doesn’t glow and only the calling bell sounds.
When calling bell switch S1 is closed, the bell rings and simultaneously transformer X gets AC supply. The output of this 6V-0V-6V/500mA step-down transformer is rectified by diodes D1 and D2. The rectified output is filtered by 1000µF, 25V capacitor C1 and fed to the collector of transistor BC547 (T1) via 2.2k resistor R1. A light-dependent resistor (LDR) is connected to the base of this transistor.
During the day, the LDR has a very low resistance as it receives continuous light. So when the calling bell switch is pressed, the transistor conducts and its collector is pulled to ground. Thus the next section of the circuit remains inactive and we hear the calling bell only.
The next section consisting of IC 7408 (IC1) and IC 7473 (IC2) gets a separate supply voltage of 5V from regulator IC 7805 (IC3) as shown in the figure.