# LED Flasher for 230 V Schematic Circuit Diagram

The small circuit shown here could act as a power indicator for the 230 V mains supply and in terms of efficiency is equal to classical neon bulbs. Note first that the LED in this circuit flashes rather than lighting continuously, and is therefore also suitable for applications where a flashing light is wanted for decorative purposes or as a gimmick. Diode D1 rectifies the input voltage, and C1 is charged by the rectified mains voltage via R1. When, after a number of half-cycles of the mains, the voltage on C1 exceeds the breakover voltage of the diac D2, the diac conducts, and C1 discharges via R2 and light-emitting diode D3. This discharge results in a brief flash of light. A 470 μF/40 V capacitors is suitable for C1.

For the diode, a 1N4004 can be used, and R1 should have a value of 33 kΩ, be rated at 0.6 W, and be suitable for use at 350 V. As an alternative, the value of 33 kΩ can be made up of two (or more) resistors wired in series: for example, 15 kΩ + 18 kΩ or 2 x 10 kΩ and 1 x 12 kΩ. R2 should be 390 Ω. The firing voltage of the diac should be 30 V. Using these values the LED flashes for 0.3 s every second.

A capacitor is a device that stores electrical energy in an electric field. It is a passive electronic component with two terminals. The effect of a capacitor is known as capacitance. A capacitor works on the principle that the capacitance of a conductor increases appreciably when an earthed conductor is brought near it. Hence, a capacitor has two plates separated by a distance having equal and opposite charges.
When positive and negative charges coalesce on the capacitor plates, the capacitor becomes charged. A capacitor can retain its electric field — hold its charge — because the positive and negative charges on each of the plates attract each other but never reach each other.
Capacitor Characteristics and Features
• Nominal Capacitance.
• Working Voltage.
• Tolerance.
• Leakage Current.
• Working Temperature.
• Polarization.
• Equivalent Series Resistance.
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