Doctors and maintenance professionals frequently employ compact light pen for visual inspections. Despite their durability and high cost, these pens have a vulnerable component: the bulb, which is considered a replaceable part. However, in reality, finding a replacement can be both costly and challenging due to its serviceability.
LEDs and their Efficiency
LEDs offer significantly longer lifespans compared to traditional bulbs and the latest ultra-bright white LEDs also boast higher energy-to-light conversion efficiency. However, to maximize their performance, LEDs require a supporting electronic circuit known as a ‘constant-current source’. In this setup, T1 and R1 are responsible for turning on the LED, while R2 functions as a current sensor. T2 diverts most of T1’s base bias current when the voltage across R2 exceeds about 0.65 V, ensuring a consistent current flow through the white LED.
Compact Circuit Design for LED Operation
With careful construction, the entire circuit can be compactly designed to match the size of an AA battery. The four button cells replace the conventional AA battery that was initially housed within the light pen, illustrating a space-efficient arrangement.
Transistors: Switches and Amplifiers
Transistors, essential semiconductor devices, play a dual role in circuits by conducting and insulating electric current or voltage. They serve as both switches and amplifiers, controlling the flow of electronic signals. In simpler terms, transistors act as miniature devices regulating electronic signal flow. They find common usage in digital circuits, functioning as electronic switches that can be in either an “on” or “off” state. Transistors are integral components in high-power applications like switched-mode power supplies and low-power applications such as logic gates.
Versatile Functionality of Transistors
Transistors, fundamental electronic components, find application in circuits to amplify or switch electrical signals or power, making them indispensable in various electronic devices. Constructed from two back-to-back connected PN diodes, a transistor possesses three terminals: emitter, base, and collector. These terminals enable precise control and regulation of electronic signals within electronic circuits.