In this project, I will show you how to build a simple Mains Operated LED Light Circuit, which can light up LEDs directly from the mains supply.
- Mains Operated LED Light Circuit Diagram
- Components used in this Circuit
- Mains Operated LED Circuit Explanation
- Working of Bridge Rectifier
- Mains Operated LED Light Circuit Working
- Advantages of LED Bulbs
Fluorescent bulbs (mercury-filled Compact bulbs or tube lights) are becoming obsolete nowadays, and LED lights are taking their place. One of the key reasons for this is that, in comparison to fluorescent lamps and tube lights, LED lights use less energy and have a longer lifespan. LED lights provide a number of advantages over fluorescent lights, which are discussed towards the end of this article.
We’ve outlined a simple circuit that you can easily make and install in your home, which will save not only materials, but also energy and money.
Mains Operated LED Light Circuit Diagram
Components used in this Circuit
- Bridge rectifier – 1
- Resistor (R1) – 1MΩ
- Resistor (R2) – 560Ω / 1W
- Capacitor (C1) – 0.22uF / 400V)
- LEDs – 5
- Connecting Wires
Mains Operated LED Circuit Explanation
This circuit is made up of basic components such as a bridge rectifier, resistors, LEDs, and a capacitor. This circuit’s components are all readily available on the market. As a result, you can build this circuit and place it in your house or office. Take a look at the component descriptions before trying to figure out how the circuit works.
A rectifier is a device that converts alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC) (DC). Rectification is the process of turning alternating current to direct current by enabling one-way electron passage. Four diodes are connected in a circuit to produce a bridge in a full wave rectifier. We’re using both positive and negative AC cycles in this method.
As illustrated in the diagram, a bridge rectifier is made up of four diodes D1, D2, D3, and D4. As a result, this configuration is referred to as a bridge rectifier.
Working of Bridge Rectifier
Through the transformer, the rectified AC signal is applied to the bridge’s diagonally opposed ends. The load resistance RL is connected between the bridge’s other two ends.
The end P becomes positive and the end Q becomes negative during the positive half cycle of secondary voltage. As a result, diodes D1 and D3 will get forward biassed and begin to conduct, while diodes D2 and D4 will become reversed bias and begin to conduct.
Because the diodes D1 and D3 are connected in series with the load resistance RL, current flows through it as illustrated in the diagram.
The P end becomes negative and the Q end becomes positive during the negative half cycle of secondary voltage. Because diodes D2 and D4 are forward biassed, they begin to conduct. Diodes D1 and D3 are reverse biassed, whereas diode D2 is forward biassed.
Because the diodes D2 and D4 are connected in series with the load resistor RL, current flows through RL as illustrated in the diagram. It can be seen that current flows from A to B through the load, in the same direction as it did during the positive half cycle. As a result, DC voltage is achieved across the load RL. Figure 1 shows the output waveform of a bridge rectifier. The output of a bridge rectifier is higher than that of a full wave or half wave rectifier.
Light emitting diode are different from other diodes as they emit light and hence referred as light emitting diode. LED are available in RED, GREEN, BLUE color.
All materials are in opposition to the main flow in some way. Resistance is the term for this kind of opposition. The quantity of free electrons in a material determines the resistance of that material. There are many different types of resistors available, including carbon film, carbon composition, filament resistor, and many others, that can be used to determine the resistance in an electronics or electrical circuit.
With the following equation, the resistance of a circuit is determined by p, L, and A.
R = L/Apppppppppp*p
Capacitance is the amount of electrical energy held at a given voltage drop by a capacitor, which is a device that stores electrical energy. A capacitor is a device that is specifically designed to have a specific capacitance value. The capacitor can hold electrons and then release them at a later time. A capacitor is made up of two metal plates separated by a non-conducting substance known as the dielectric.
A diode is an electrical device that enables just one direction of electricity to flow. Forward diodes are made by combining N and P type semiconductors. The N type semiconductor contains free electrons that can travel about. Similarly, holes can be seen in P type semiconductors. Near the junction, electrons from the N type material cross the junction and fill in the holes in the P type material. Similarly, holes near the P-type material’s junction cross the junction and take the place of electrons. At the PN semiconductor’s junction, a depletion layer forms.
Mains Operated LED Light Circuit Working
The circuit’s operation is fairly straightforward. Assemble the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram. Apply the AC mains now. Resistor R2 serves as a current limiting component, whereas resistor R1 serves as a discharge resistor for capacitor C1, preventing deadly shock.
This power is now supplied to the bridge rectifier circuit, which converts AC to DC while also lowering the voltage using current limiting components. This power is now transmitted to the LEDs, and the LED attached to the output begins to glow. You can either buy a bridge rectifier or create your own using four diodes. You can utilise up to 20 LEDs in total.
Advantages of LED Bulbs
- In comparison to fluorescent and incandescent lights, LED bulbs last ten times longer.
- Because LED bulbs do not include a filament, they are less likely to be damaged.
- The common incandescent bulb becomes hot and generates a lot of heat in the room, but the LED light prevents heat buildup and helps to save money on air conditioning.
- In comparison to fluorescent lamps, LED lamps consume about 2-17 watts, or about 1/3 of the power. So, if you use an LED light, you can save a lot of money on your electric bill.
- Because LED lamps use extremely little energy, they are increasingly being used in solar panels.
- Many individuals have inverters in their homes, and they are increasingly using LED lights with inverters to extend the amount of time that inverters can sustain LED light.
- Although the initial cost of an LED bulb is higher than that of a fluorescent bulb, they have a longer lifespan, can be readily moved from one location to another without breaking, and save electricity. As a result, LED bulbs are more energy efficient than fluorescent bulbs.
- Temperature and humidity have no effect on LED lights.
- LED bulb does not contain mercury also hence do not provide harm to environment also.
- LED lights will turn on instantly.