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How to make a mobile phone charger (Part-2) Schematic Circuit Diagram

Designing a Short Circuit Protection Circuit for Mobile Charger

In the preceding section (Part 1), we developed a stable 5-volt DC power supply for the mobile charger. In this segment, our focus shifts to creating a short circuit protection circuit to safeguard the entire setup from potential damage due to short circuits. This protective circuit is essential for effectively charging a battery. The schematic diagram below illustrates the setup. Upon pressing the button, if a short circuit arises, the D5 LED will illuminate, indicating the occurrence of a short circuit instead of causing harm to the entire circuit. The functioning of this protective mechanism is detailed below.

How to make a mobile phone charger (Part-2) Schematic Circuit Diagram

How is short circuit protection activated?

The transistor can be used in two applications: one is to amplify the signal, and another is as a switch. In this example, we have used a transistor as a switch. First, if we do not press the button in the case of the open circuit, first Q2 and then Q1 get activated, and the current starts flowing through D6, in that case, D5 gets reverse biased so the main charging LED glows. And when we short-circuited The path always follows the least resistance in that case both of the transistors go off and D5 gets forward biased. and we can obtain output from D6.

A transistor is a type of semiconductor device that can be used to both conduct and insulate electric current or voltage. A transistor basically acts as a switch and an amplifier. In simple words, we can say that a transistor is a miniature device that is used to control or regulate the flow of electronic signals. Transistors are broadly divided into three types: bipolar transistors (bipolar junction transistors: BJTs), field-effect transistors (FETs), and insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs).
The word transistor is a combination of transfer and resistance. This is because it transfers the resistance from one end of the device to the other end or we can say, transfer of resistance. Hence, the name transistor. Transistors have very high input resistance and very low output resistance.
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