Battery Circuit DiagramsSolar Charger


solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electronic device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon. It is a form of photoelectric cell, defined as a device whose electrical characteristics, such as current, voltage, or resistance, vary when exposed to light. Individual solar cell devices are often the electrical building blocks of photovoltaic modules, known colloquially as solar panels. The common single junction silicon solar cell can produce a maximum open-circuit voltage of approximately 0.5 volts to 0.6volts.

It is known as a solar cell. It is a DC generator that converts the light energy falling on it into electrical energy. It is a PN semiconductor composition placed on a metal base. On top is a metal ring. The cell is placed in a window housing with the connection terminals out.

Nowadays, many studies are carried out. It is
used in light-working calculators. Since it is still an expensive technology, its use in homes and workplaces has not
become widespread. In the near future, the use of electrical energy from solar energy will be increased by placing solar panels in the light parts of the buildings. Usually expressed by the following symbols


When the light arrives at a light beam, the photovoltaic P layer of the photovoltaic battery through the transparent glass window, the electron movement begins at the PN junction region. This occurs as a result of the electron movement – charge electrons and + charged holes. The electrons are deposited in the N layer and the holes in the Player. Thus, the external connection terminal connected to the N-layer consists of a DC generator to be negative, and the external connection terminal ide positive connected to the P-layer. As light intensity increases, new electro-hole pairs are formed, increasing the potential of the generator.

The maximum voltage that can be obtained is naturally dependent not only on the intensity of light but also on the dimensions of the cell. in other words, by increasing the light intensity from a certain photo voltaic battery, no desired voltage can be obtained. Photo batteries can be connected in series to increase the current by connecting the voltage in parallel.


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