Most darkness activated alarms employ opamps and some logic ICs. Here, a less expensive approach is shown based on the eternal 555, this time in monostable multivibrator mode.
Components R2 and C1 represent a one-second network. When the LDR (light dependent resistor) is in the dark, its resistance is high, pulling pin 2 of the 555 to ground. This triggers the monostable and the (active!) 6-volt piezo buzzer will sound. Preset P1 is adjusted depending on ambient light levels. The circuit may be fitted on a wall in your home. Assuming P1 has been set for the existing ambient light level, the shadow cast by anybody entering the room or hallway will trigger the alarm.