Earlier, there have been instances where circuits were developed to monitor telephone line. This uncomplicated circuit achieves the same purpose using minimal components and is entirely passive. Its operation is remarkably straightforward. The circuit is linked in series with either of the two signal lines, with no preference for either. When the telephone receiver is picked up or the modem establishes a connection, a voltage is generated across the four diodes. This voltage is harnessed to power the duoLED.
I can describe the general components and their functions that you might find in a Telephone Line Watchdog circuit:
Telephone Line Interface:
- This is the point where the telephone line is connected to the circuit. It typically includes components such as resistors and capacitors for impedance matching and protection against voltage surges.
- This component detects the ringing signal on the telephone line. It could be a simple circuit using a diode and a capacitor to detect the AC signal of an incoming call.
Microcontroller or Timer IC:
- A microcontroller or a timer IC (such as the 555 timer) can be used to control the timing and logic of the circuit. The microcontroller can be programmed to monitor the status of the telephone line continuously.
- A voltage detector circuit can monitor the voltage level on the telephone line. Sudden drops or spikes in voltage can indicate line disturbances or disconnections.
- A relay can be used to control external devices such as alarms or backup systems. When a fault is detected, the relay can be triggered to activate these devices.
- LEDs can be used to provide visual indications of the telephone line status. For example, a green LED might indicate a normal line, while a red LED could indicate a fault.
- The circuit needs a stable power supply to operate. This can be achieved using voltage regulators and appropriate filtering components.
Depending on the current’s direction, either the red or green segment of the duoLED will illuminate. In certain countries, the telephone line voltage polarity reverses after a few seconds. However, this doesn’t affect this circuit due to the use of the duoLED. Depending on the line’s polarity, the current flows through either branch. The 22-Ω resistor functions as a current limiter, ensuring both colors have similar brightness. The duoLED, available from Conrad Electronics (part number 183652) and other suppliers, can be replaced with a similar LED. The diodes required are the commonly found 1N4148 type.
The 1N4148 is a standard silicon switching signal diode, widely used for its reliable specifications and low cost. It is popular for switching applications up to about 100 MHz, with a reverse-recovery time of no more than 4 ns, following the JEDEC nomenclature.
The features and specifications of the 1N4148 diode include the following.
- It is available in SMD & DO-35 packages
- Max temperature ranges from -65 C to +175 C
- Si epitaxial quick switching diode
- Recovery time in reverse is 8ns
- The power dissipation max is 5W
- Max forward surge current is 2A
- The reverse voltage is 75V
- Usual rectified current (max) is 15A/150mA
- The reverse voltage with repetitive (max) is 100 V